If you are like me, when you see an impressive demo of a new CSS3 feature, you can’t wait to start using it in websites. Of course, then you see that it is available in only one or two of the major browsers (and this never includes IE), so ultimately you decide to wait. I have good news for you – with the latest browser releases, there are a few awesome features that are finally supported everywhere, and you can start using them right now!
A word of caution – most of these features will not work in older versions of IE (9 and below). If these browsers are a large portion of your demographic, I am afraid that you will have to rely on fallbacks. But for the rest of us, here is what modern browsers have to offer:
1. CSS Animations and Transitions
CSS animations are finally available in all major browsers, even in IE (since version 10). There are two ways to create CSS animations. The first is very easy, it is done through animating the changes of CSS properties with the
2. Calculating Values With calc()
Another new and awesome CSS feature is the
calc() function. It allows you to do simple arithmetic calculations in CSS. You can use it anywhere a length or a size is required. What is even cooler, is that you can freely mix different units, like percentages and pixels. This makes a lot of layout hacks that you might have used in the past obsolete. The best news? It works in IE9 and up, prefix-free.
3. Advanced Selectors
These days, if you assign IDs to elements only so you can style them, you are probably doing it wrong. CSS 2.1 and CSS 3 introduced a number of powerful selectors that can make your layouts cleaner, and your stylesheets more awesome.
These are supported in all major browsers including IE9 and up.
4. Generated Content and Counters
Generated content is a powerful tool in the hands of developers, made available by the
::afterpseudo elements. This feature lets you use less HTML to achieve the same layouts. This is especially beneficial in cases where you need extra box shadows or other visual elements that would require extra spans or divs. In the end, you get a more minimal and semantically correct HTML.
CSS3 also gives pseudo elements access to counters, which can be incremented with a CSS rule. They can also access attributes from the parent elements that contain them. See the source of the example below.
Gradients give web designers the power to create smooth transitions between colors without having to resort to images. CSS gradients also look great on retina displays, because they are generated on the fly. They can be linear or radial, and can be set to repeat. They have been around for some time, but after a few minor syntax changes over the last months, they are finally available nearly everywhere, prefix-free!
Can you imagine that there was a time when we were limited to only a handful of “web-safe” fonts and nothing else? It is hard to believe, given that today we have services like Google Fonts and typekit, which let you embed beautiful fonts by simply including a stylesheet in your page. There are even icon fonts like fontawesome, which contain pretty vector icons, instead of letters or numbers. This was all made possible by the code>@font-facerule, which lets you define the name, characteristics and source files for fonts, which you can later refer in your
Note that due to security limitations in browsers, I was not able to embed a local font in the inline editor above, so I used one from Google Webfonts instead. But you can see a working example here.
With some workarounds, webfonts work on browsers as old as IE6. The two hosted services I mentioned above handle these cases for you, so you don’t have to.
7. Box Sizing
The single biggest cause for headaches for CSS beginners is the box model. The standardization bodies have probably had their reasons, but it doesn’t feel at all intuitive to have the CSS width and height of an element affected by its padding and borders. This little (mis)feature breaks layouts and wreaks havoc, but finally there is a way to restore our sanity by using the
box-sizing rule. You can set it to
border-box, which makes elements behave exactly the way you expect. See for yourself:
8. Border Images
border-image property allows you to display custom designed borders around elements. The borders are contained in a single image (sprite), with each region of that image corresponding to a different part of the border. Here is the image used in the below example.
9. Media Queries
Media queries are an absolute must if you are serious about web design. They have been around for a while, but are worth a mention, because they have transformed the way we build websites. It used to be that you had a regular website, wide enough to fit the smallest monitor resolution used at the time, and a separate mobile website. These days, we build sites that are responsive and which adapt to the type of device, orientation and resolution.
Media queries are surprisingly easy to use – all you need to do is to enclose CSS styles in a block guarded by a code>@media rule. Each code>@media block is activated when one or more conditions are met. As an example, try resizing this page. I have also included it in the editor below; try removing the the code>@media block to see what happens.
10. Multiple Backgrounds
With multiple backgrounds, designers can achieve very interesting effects. They can stack different images as backgrounds of the same element. Each image (or layer) can be moved and animated independently, like you can see in the demo below (try hovering over the image with your mouse). All background-releated CSS rules can now take a comma-delimited list of properties, each for the specific background image:
11. CSS Columns
There is good support for this rule, although it still requires prefixes. Where things break down is with the support of some of the other column-related rules and differences between browsers in handling corner cases.
12. CSS 3D Transforms
There is nothing more flashy and full with eye-candy than an impressive 3D CSS demo. Although its utility outside of demos or portfolio sites is questionable, 3D CSS offers some powerful features to designers and developers that can win the hearts of users if done with good measure.